What is biomedical waste management?

Biomedical waste management, According to the World Health Association (WHO), 85% of emergency clinics are non-hazardous and 10% are nonprescription and 5% are nonprescription, yet contain dangerous compounds such as methyl chloride.

Bio-clinical waste means any strong and liquid waste that is generated in the course of a medical service office, for example, waste created in vaccination, analysis, therapy, or research action.

This type of waste changes in day-to-day existence is liable for.

Biomedical waste management Introduction

Biomedical Waste Management Definition
Image Source: istockphoto

85% of hospital waste is not hazardous and the remaining 15% can spread various diseases to animals and humans. Hence the emphasis is on recycling these bio-medical items which will lead to the formation of resistant microorganisms.

Biomedical Waste Management Definition

Bio-medical waste management includes human and animal waste products and equipment used for treatment in health institutions (such as hospitals, laboratories, immunization works, blood banks, etc).

You and I cannot imagine how dangerous this biomedical waste is for our health and the environment. Not only do more diseases spread due to this, but water, land, and air are all contaminated.

This waste may be a minor waste for a hospital, but according to the Government of India and the Medical Council of India, it is the stuff of death. There is also the fear of getting diseases like infection, HIV, epidemic, hepatitis from such waste.

Let us know what is biomedical waste, how is it generated, and how to dispose of it properly?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), this waste from hospitals is divided into the following categories:

  • Medicinal substances: This includes leftover and old and spoiled medicines.
  • Diseased substances: In this, the patient’s excreta, urine, vomit, human organs, etc.
  • Radioactive substances: It includes various radioactive substances such as radium, X-rays, and cobalt, etc.
  • Chemical substances: It includes various chemical substances used in batteries and labs.

In addition to the above, there are some common substances which include medicine wrappers, paper, reports, X-ray film, and kitchen waste.

Not only this, some other substances like glucose bottles, needles, gloves, etc. also get mixed in the biomedical waste.

What is the type of biomedical waste management?

What is the type of biomedical waste management
① Autoclaving

In the autoclaving process, the microorganism is completely destroyed by the use of hot steam in a stipulated time. This procedure is particularly effective because it costs much less than other methods.

There are some biomedical wastes that cannot be disposed of through autoclaving. About 90% of the material is cleaned this way before it is sent to the landfill.

② Incineration

The process of incineration is easy and simple, as in this process the waste is effectively destroyed completely. However, when burning hazardous materials, the emission of toxic gases can be particularly dangerous.

③ Chemicals 

When it comes to liquid waste, a common biomedical waste disposal method may be chemical disinfection. Chlorine is a routine substitute for this process and is introduced into liquid waste to kill microorganisms and pathogens.

④ Microwaving

During this process, the waste is shredded, mixed with water, and then heated internally to kill microorganisms and other harmful substances.

What are the sources of biomedical waste?

The main sources of bio-medical waste are government and private hospitals, nursing homes, dispensaries, and primary health centers.

Apart from these, various medical colleges, research centers, paramedical services, blood banks, morgues, necropsy centers, veterinary colleges, animal research centers, health production centers, and various biomedical educational institutions also generate large quantities of biomedical waste.

In addition to the above, some biomedical waste is also generated from general practitioners, dental clinics, animal houses, slaughterhouses, blood donation camps, acupuncture specialists, psychiatric clinics, funeral services, vaccination centers, and disability educational institutions.

Effects of biomedical waste on the Environment

Improper management of hospital waste in health care has direct and indirect effects on the environment. Inadequate burning of medical waste can result in the emission of toxic gases harmful to the environment.

Effects of medical waste on the Environment

Biomedical waste management has the most serious impact on our oceans. These toxic wastes can be consumed by sea creatures, which can be fatal for them.

The toxins will enter the food chain and eventually reach humans who consume marine organisms.

Excessive use of plastic in the medical field is also a threat to the environment. Our current reliance on plastic materials in medical devices has increased because they are lightweight, cost-effective, and durable.

In addition to the serious health effects of releasing harmful toxins into the environment from medical waste deposits, single-use plastics can catalyze health damage.

After the incineration process or waste burning, toxic ash residue is generated and is often disposed of in landfills. These deposits are exposed to human use through groundwater and air.

The combustion of plastic materials releases toxic gases and mixes into the air. Exposure to such gases can cause health problems to humans and animals.

These poisonous gases also have an effect on trees and plants. Air pollution caused by incinerators destroys the ozone layer, damages crops, and forests, and exacerbates climate change.

Rule of Biomedical Waste Management, 2016

 Vaccination camps, medical camps, delivery camps, and other health care
The rules have been extended to facilities.

 Use of fluorinated plastic baskets, gloves, and dust bags within 2 years
Use.

 Laboratory Waste, Microbiological Waste, Liquid Samples to W.HO or
Pre-treatment by disinfecting the site as prescribed by NADO
Want it Also provide regular training to all health personnel.

 Installation of barcode system for bags and containers containing biomedical waste
and reporting of major accidents.

 Segregation of Biomedical Waste to Improve Segregation at Source 4 Categories
(earlier 10) or According to new rules to reduce the emission of pollutants
Incentives must meet stringent standards. Dioxin and Furan in the New Testament
Emission limit is also included for (during product processing).

 If a general biomedical service is in force at a distance of 75 km, any
The occupier will not set up an on-site treatment facility. 
In addition, health
Ensure timely collection of waste and provide training to care centers
The operator of the common biomedical service must be hired to do this.

 State Government to set up Common Bio-Medical Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility
To provide land.

How dangerous is this biomedical waste management in hospital

How dangerous is this biomedical waste management in hospital

Hospital waste is very dangerous. There is a risk of infectious diseases due to the reuse of used needles and other equipment by throwing them in the open. It cannot even be eliminated by burning at a normal temperature.

If the waste is not incinerated at the prescribed temperature of 1,150 °C, it continuously produces organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans, which can cause cancer, reproductive and developmental problems.

They not only affect the immune system and fertility but also reduce sperm count and sometimes cause diabetes in biomedical waste management in hospitals.

Recycling Process by Hospitals

All hospitals have to carefully dispose of these items with the help of bio-medical waste plants and disposal facilities. If a hospital treats more than 1000 people per month, then that hospital will have to dispose of the biomedical waste by classifying it into different categories as per the law.

If bodily materials are present in the mess it is necessary to burn them, but most hospitals do not do this. Sometimes these goods are dumped directly into the oceans which then flow back to the coastal areas.

Many doctors and health officials do not know how to deal with these items. Many types of medical waste bags come in different colors. For example, needles, blood-stained bandages, etc. have to be burnt by putting them in a red-colored bag.

There is also a clear instruction in the guidelines of the Central Pollution Control Board that biomedical waste should be destroyed daily.

For this, syringes, needles, and bottles, etc. should be disposed of on the spot, that is, immediately after use, they should be destroyed and packed in separate bags and sent to the depot.

In contrast, the reality is that waste from hospital wards and operation theaters is carried through open trolleys.

Out of these, blood and other waste also fall on the way, due to which there is a possibility of spreading an infection to the patients and their families in the hospital.

Rule violation of biomedical waste management

The list of violators of the rules of Bio-Medical Waste is with the Pollution Control Board of the local state governments. Strict action should be taken against the hospitals found guilty by the pollution control board, whether they are government and private hospitals or nursing homes.

Rule violation of biomedical waste management

The 2016 Act (Bio-Medical Waste Management Rule, 2016 in Hindi)

This 2016 Act is an amendment to the 1998 Act. These new rules have been made keeping in mind the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.

Blood donation camps, vaccination camps, surgical camps, and all other types of health camps have been included in this law.

Some important facts of this rule are:-
  • A bar code system should be implemented for the bags containing bio-medical items to be disposed of.
  • All health workers should be trained regularly and immunized from time to time.
  • Replace plastic bags, gloves, blood bags, etc. with chlorine every two years.
  • A limit should be fixed for the emission of dioxin etc.
  • To sterilize laboratory, microbial material, blood samples, blood bags, etc. by sterilization.
  • Arrangements should be made by the state government to set up a major bio-medical waste disposal center in every area.
  • The legal procedures for this work should be simplified.
  • Bio-medical waste should be divided into four categories so that it can be easily disposed of.
  • Bio-medical things should be treated regularly and its report should be given to the government.
  • There should not be any residential complex within several kilometers of where the bio-medical waste treatment center is located.

What should we and you do?

We and you also have an important role to play in the proper disposal and management of bio-medical waste. For this we can save ourselves and our environment from getting polluted by this biomedical waste by adopting the following things:

  • Waste must be carried in closed vehicles. Mixed waste should be segregated and disposed of as per the prescribed procedure.
  • Instead of burning and destroying the waste, there should be a system for recycling it.
  • Biomedical and industrial waste should not be mixed with urban waste.
  • Dustbins should be kept in those places from where there is a system of regular garbage collection.
  • Awareness programs should be organized for knowledge of solid waste management.
  • The process of lifting and dumping garbage by individuals should be completely banned.
  • Do not throw biomedical waste at the landfill site. If the waste is to be dumped at the landfill itself, a 10 mm layer of soil should be laid immediately after the garbage is dumped.
  • Hospitals should also strictly follow the rules of biomedical waste disposal.

FAQ [frequiently Asked Question]

What is biomedical waste management?

Biomedical waste management, According to the World Health Association (WHO), 85% of emergency clinics are non-hazardous and 10% are nonprescription and 5% are nonprescription, yet contain dangerous compounds such as methyl chloride.
Bio-clinical waste means any strong and liquid waste that is generated in the course of a medical service office, for example, waste created in vaccination, analysis, therapy, or research action.
This type of waste changes in day-to-day existence is liable for.

What is the type of biomedical waste management?

① Autoclaving
In the autoclaving process, the microorganism is completely destroyed by the use of hot steam in a stipulated time. This procedure is particularly effective because it costs much less than other methods.
② Incineration
The process of incineration is easy and simple, as in this process the waste is effectively destroyed completely. However, when burning hazardous materials, the emission of toxic gases can be particularly dangerous.
③ Chemicals
When it comes to liquid waste, a common biomedical waste disposal method may be chemical disinfection. Chlorine is a routine substitute for this process and is introduced into liquid waste to kill microorganisms and pathogens.

What are the Effects of biomedical waste on the Environment

Improper management of hospital waste in health care has direct and indirect effects on the environment. Inadequate burning of medical waste can result in the emission of toxic gases harmful to the environment.
Biomedical waste has the most serious impact on our oceans. These toxic wastes can be consumed by sea creatures, which can be fatal for them.
The toxins will enter the food chain and eventually reach humans who consume marine organisms.
Excessive use of plastic in the medical field is also a threat to the environment. Our current reliance on plastic materials in medical devices has increased because they are lightweight, cost-effective, and durable

What are the sources of biomedical waste?

The main sources of bio-medical waste are government and private hospitals, nursing homes, dispensaries, and primary health centers.
Apart from these, various medical colleges, research centers, paramedical services, blood banks, morgues, necropsy centers, veterinary colleges, animal research centers, health production centers, and various biomedical educational institutions also generate large quantities of biomedical waste.

How dangerous is this biomedical waste management in hospital

Hospital waste is very dangerous. There is a risk of infectious diseases due to the reuse of used needles and other equipment by throwing them in the open. It cannot even be eliminated by burning at a normal temperature.
If the waste is not incinerated at the prescribed temperature of 1,150 °C, it continuously produces organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans, which can cause cancer, reproductive and developmental problems.

What is the Rule violation of biomedical waste management?

The list of violators of the rules of Bio-Medical Waste is with the Pollution Control Board of the local state governments. Strict action should be taken against the hospitals found guilty by the pollution control board, whether they are government and private hospitals or nursing homes.
The 2016 Act (Bio-Medical Waste Management Rule, 2016 in Hindi)
Some important facts of this rule are:-
✔ A bar code system should be implemented for the bags containing bio-medical items to be disposed of.
✔ All health workers should be trained regularly and immunized from time to time.
✔ Replace plastic bags, gloves, blood bags, etc. with chlorine every two years.
✔ A limit should be fixed for the emission of dioxin etc.
✔ To sterilize laboratory, microbial material, blood samples, blood bags, etc. by sterilization.
✔ Arrangements should be made by the state government to set up a major bio-medical waste disposal center in every area.

What should we and you do for biomedical waste management?

We and you also have an important role to play in the proper disposal and management of bio-medical waste. For this we can save ourselves and our environment from getting polluted by this biomedical waste by adopting the following things:
✔ Waste must be carried in closed vehicles. Mixed waste should be segregated and disposed of as per the prescribed procedure.
✔ Instead of burning and destroying the waste, there should be a system for recycling it.

Related Term

Summary & Conclusion

What is Biomedical Waste Management and why is it important? What is its relation with the environment and is it harmful to human life and other living beings. So friends read this article completely so that you can get complete information about Biomedical Waste Management.

I hope friends, through this article, I gave you information about what is Biomedical Waste Management and you must have liked this article. So do share your suggestions with us by commenting.

Like this information Or have something to share!

Connect with us on Facebook

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here